From 1848 until 1926, the Portuguese fought close to 200 actions and campaigns in Angola. The struggle, against the various European colonial powers and native kingdoms, to maintain its claims over such vast African territories was one that Portugal, with its limited resources and manpower, could not afford. It's amazing how it could hold on against such overwhelming odds. At the beginning of the century and until 1885, the Portuguese military were dependant on the resilience and efforts of many forgotten officers. The backbone of the expeditions were usually made up of ill equipped askaris armed with Sniders and African auxiliaries, led by white officers and settlers. Only the specialist troops, such as the artillery, were European. The metropolitan expeditions sent during the 1860's and 1870's were issued with the usual uniform which consisted of a dark blue coat, white loose trousers and white havelock. They were armed with the traditional Martini-Henrys. The askaris were issued a dark brown coat, but that was not always the case, since equipment rotted very quickly in Africa. In the 1880's European troops were issued a white uniform. The havelock was used along with the slouch hat which was specially used by the officers. Some of them, like Artur de Paiva in the south, even dressed Boer style on a few campaigns. At this time the standard rifle of European troops became the Austrian made Kropathschek 8mm mod. 1886, which was latter produced under licence in Portugal, while the African troops were equipped with the Martini-Henry. In 1900 a new colonial uniform regulation was adopted. Khaki was to be warn by all troops. The Europeans were issued broad brimmed hats, while the African troops were issued with a red fez and short baggy trousers. Officers often used white trousers. In 1898 the Mossamedes Dragoons had a light grey uniform but latter adopted the khaki. The cavalry was armed with swords and Kropathschek carbines, with the second squadron also equipped with lances. The artillery was equipped with Portuguese made BEM 7 cm m/1882 mountain-guns, Krupps, Canets and latter on also with the Erhardt. The standard machinegun was the widely used Nordenfeldt, sometimes serviced by naval gunners. The naval infantry during the Kwamato campaign, used a blue-grey infantry uniform with the sailors tippet. The African troops quality was often questionable and by 1900's the majority of the expeditions were formed by Europeans. The adopted formation in combat was the square, like in many African campaigns. By the end of the century the quality of officer's Corps increased as the influx of experienced personnel began to arrive from the East African campaigns.